Marcel Duchamp
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Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) was a French artist often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist movements. Considered by many as one of the most important artists of the 20th century, Duchamp's work became a major influence in the development of post-World War II Western art. He also advised modern art collectors, such as Peggy Guggenheim to help shape the tastes of art in America. He challenged conventional artistic processes through subversive actions, most notably when he proposed one of his first Ready-mades, a urinal as a “Fountain” (1917) to the Society of Independent Artists, under the pseudonym “R. Mutt”. With another notorious piece entitled “L.H.O.O.Q.”, he pencilled-in a moustache and goatee on top of a reproduction of Leonardo Da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa” (1919). Duchamp produced relatively few works in his lifetime, eventually to abandon art altogether and devote himself to playing chess

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